Dartmouth Electron Microscope Facility Date: Tue 07-Jun-2011 Time: 16:31
01_HIV-tc1.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video

02_hiv-tc2.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video

03_hiv-tc3.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
04_hiv-tc4.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more info see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video

05_hiv-tc5.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video

06_hiv-tc11-07-3.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
07_hiv-tc11-07-1.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
08_HIV-tc-2008-1.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
09_Grid3c_HIV4-3.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
10_Grid3c_HIV4-2.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
11_Grid3c_HIV4-1.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.


HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
12_HIV_Apr26_2011-1.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
13_HIV_Apr26_2011-2.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
14_HIV_Apr26_2011-3.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
15_HIV_Apr26_2011-4.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
16_HIV TC 40736 6,6kx.jpg Instrument: JEOL 100CX TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


17_HIV TC 2104 10kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video


18_HIV TC 2101 100kx.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
19_HIV TC 2102 25kx.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
20_HIV TC 2106 50kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
21_HIV TC 2108 25kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
22_HIV TC 2109 25kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video

23_HIV TC 2112 25kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
24_HIV TC 2111 50kX.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.


For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42

To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video
25_HIV TC 2114 6Kx.jpg Instrument: JEOL 1010 TEM
Microscopist: Louisa Howard.

Tissue culture cell line, infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV particles are 90-120nm in diameter.

 

HIV is the causal agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a retrovirus. The major host cell of HIV is the CD4 class of T lymphocytes and the virus somehow prevents normal division processes in these cells. Lymphocytes are very important to the body's immune functions. This viral infection process greatly compromises those immune functions, by the accelerated reduction of CD4 cells; this, in turn leads to AIDS.

 

The process of infection: (1) virus attaches to the cell via the CD4 molecule on the surface of the cell. The CD4 molecule on the lymphocyte acts as a cell surface receptor for HIV. (2) fusion of the virus envelope with the host cell membrane. (3) nucleocapsid, containing the genetic material, is carried into cytoplasm by endocytosis.

For more information see:
Dorosko, S.M. and Connor R.I. (2010)
Primary human mammary epithelial cells endocytose HIV-1 and facilitate viral infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Virol 84(20):10533-
42


To see a short video about  HIV infection pathway go to:
HIV infection pathway_short video



Dartmouth Electron Microscope Facility